Drone Laws in Mozambique

Agencies Responsible for regulating drones in the Republic of Mozambique

Instituto de Aviação Civil de Moçambique (IACM)

Mozambique Drone Regulations


UAS Laws – General rules for flying drones in Mozambique

The Mozambique agency responsible for drone safety, IACM, has provided several internet-accessible details on flying for fun or work. The highlights are enumerated below. For more details, go to the link above.

Are drones allowed in Mozambique?

According to IACM, drones are allowed in Mozambique, subject to IACM regulations. Read on for more details.

Here are the most important rules to know for flying a drone in Mozambique:

Classification of RPAS and Operations

Class of RPASMTOM (kg)Kinetic Energy of Impact (kJ)Required Command & Control Link (RLOS or Others)Autopilot RequiredCapacity of Autonomous Operation Required
1Less than  or equal to 5 kg<10 kJRLOS onlyNotNot
25.1 to 20kg<34 kJRLOS onlyYesNo, unless BVLOS is used
320.1 to 150 kgAnyRLOS or OthersYesYes
4≥ 150.1 kg ReservedReservedReservedReserved
Operation CategoryParameterDay/Night (VMC only)Class of RPASAltitude AGLType
AR-VLOS / VLOSDay1200 maxPersonal/Recreational
B*R-VLOS / VLOS /D-VLOS/EDay/Night1, 2400 maxCorporate/Not for Profit
C1VLOS/B-VLOSR-VLOS / VLOS /D-VLOSDay1400 maxCommercial
C2R-VLOS / VLOS /D-VLOS/EVLOS/B-VLOSDay/Night1, 2, 3, 4400 maxCommercial

Note BVLOS is not permitted currently

RULES OF FLIGHT OPERATIONS

General

In general terms, RPAS operations are classified into two main groups:

Personal/recreational operations (Category A), and not personal/recreational operations – corporate and commercial (Categories B, C1, and C2).

For Category A operations, no RPAS will be flown above 100 feet above ground level. 

For Category B and C2 operations, no RPAS will be flown above 400 feet above ground level at no time or for any purpose.

B-VLOS operations are currently not allowed.

For all RPAS flights, except Category A operations, the Pilot must carry a valid RPAS pilot license or certificate issued by a Member State of the ICAO. 

A valid medical certificate will accompany the license or certificate, evidence of a level 4 or higher proficiency of the ICAO English language.

In VLOS operations, more than one aircraft cannot be flown at the same time.

Remote pilots and PAS observers cannot operate when they are under the influence of alcohol or drugs or are incapacitated physically or mentally, or under any psychoactive substances or medications that may affect your ability to operate effectively.

The remote Pilot must give priority to crewed aircraft and move away from the same whenever, for any reason, the manned aircraft are exceptionally flying at a height close to RPAS.

Regardless of the intended Category of RPAS operations, the IACM will be informed about these planned operations.

Before operating any RPAS in Mozambican airspace, the IACM must issue a written approval. Without such authorization, the operation of the flight will be considered unlawful.

PERSONAL/RECREATIONAL OPERATIONS (RPAS CATEGORY A OPERATIONS)

Approved Conditions for Category A Operations

Personal/recreational RPAS flights are allowed under the following conditions:

  • Day, VMC conditions prevail.
  • RPAS is not allowed to fly above 100 feet above ground level. This height is measured from the surface of the ground and not from the surface of any object or structure.
  • RPAS is not authorized to also fly a lateral distance above 150 meters and 300 meters lateral area from Pilot and 
  • Remote Pilot maintains visual contact of RPAS. 
  • If you want to go through a private area, you must obtain written authorization from the landlord or supervisory authority.
  • The RPAS is piloted within the limitations and standards of the manufacturer’s user manual.
  • The flight is conducted for personal or recreational purposes only.
  • Category A operations cannot be performed over people.
  • Category A operations must maintain a minimum horizontal distance from people and goods of 30 meters.

The RPAS Pilot remains responsible for the safety of people, possessions, and other users of airspace around ​​operations.

RPAS is not authorized to fly under any of the restricted conditions below.

Process for Category A Operations

A person who wishes to pilot any PAS in Mozambique airspace under the Category A conditions must submit a Letter of Notification for RPAS flights to the IACM.

The notice, proof of payment, and any necessary documentation accompanying the notification must be submitted to the IACM at least 1 week before the planned operations.

All applications must be submitted via email to the following address: rpas.@iacm.gov.mz.

The IACM will issue an approval letter including the applicant’s limitations and conditions if the application is granted.

Restrictions applicable to Category A Operations

Approval for Category A operations usually is only issued for the Mozambican citizens residing in Mozambique.

In instances where a non-Mozambican citizen or non-resident Mozambican citizen in the country you wish to apply for Category A approval, the following conditions will be applicable:

Approval will only be considered if the person has a valid passport with a visa, as applicable for entry into Mozambique in the case of foreigners.

Approval will be granted for a limited time based on the terms of the entry allowed in passport and/or visa.

RPAS must have been brought into Mozambique legally.

Proof of possession or letter of authorization to use the RPAS of the owner.

OTHER THAN PERSONAL/RECREATIVE OPERATIONS (CATEGORIES B, C1, AND C2)

General

For all RPAS flights, a suitable and functioning manual fire extinguisher will be on the site and 10 meters from the Pilot In Charge.

All RPAS intending to use Categories B, C1, and C2 will carry a valid registration certificate issued by the IACM.

Every person who performs the duties of a pilot will hold a pilot license, valid RPAS certificate, or a Certificate issued by an ICAO Member State. In addition, the license or certificate will be accompanied by a valid medical certificate from Ponto 4 or higher and evidence of a level 4 (operational level) or higher of English language proficiency in the ICAO.

An applicant for Category B, C1, or C2 PAS operation will submit Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) as per the requirements of the IACM for evaluation. RPAS operations are not allowed without prior approval of these SOPs.

For each flight or series of flights at the same place during Category B operations, C1 or C2, the operator will carry out a formal security risk management process that consists of documented hazard identification, risk assessment, and mitigation measures taken to ensure operational safety.

Regardless of the type of flight performed under Category B operations, C1 or C2, the operator will develop a pre-flight checklist to use by the PIC before each flight.

Process for Category B, C1, and C2 Operations

The applicant should follow the process documented below to apply for approval to operate Category B, C1, or C2 RPAS operations in Mozambique’s airspace. The sequence of steps was explicitly designed to allow sufficient supervision of the regulator’s safety at each step while ensuring that the applicant only asks for the appropriate approvals, thus strengthening the efficiency and accuracy of each order process.

The order process is intended to confirm that each step is completed before progressing to the next step unless otherwise specified below. So, applicants must follow these steps in the exact order in which they are presented here.

The responsibility for submitting the necessary documentation and payment to lACM at requested intervals remains of the applicant. However, failure to do so may delay the process.

STEP 1: REGISTRATION OF RPAS

STEP 2: ORDER FOR RPAS OPERATIONS

STEP 3: DOCUMENTATION SUBMISSION

STEP 4: INSPECTION & APPROVAL

STEP 1: REGISTRATION OF RPAS

Term (Estimate): 5 to 10 days, if no visual inspection or security inspection is required

Visual inspections are necessary when in the opinion of the IACM, the RPAS is considered rare or uniquely constructed and not generally available for purchase through normal commercial means. In cases where no OEM user manual or published material is available or the RPAS has been built using unacceptable techniques and/or methods or do not meet the acceptable basic safety margins of the IACM [RPAS done in-house], a visual inspection will be mandatory.

Example: All DJI products, easily obtained through normal commercial means and with manuals from use and maintenance published regularly updated on your website, will not need visual inspection provided that the specific RPAS has not been modified in any way by the applicant or other people not approved by DJI.

Conversely, an RPAS manufactured/assembled by the applicant or other entity not recognized by lACM as an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) with insufficient safety margins used during the manufacture and/or do not have any formal user manual and associated documentation available you will not need additional verification of security protocols and a visual inspection by the IACM.

STEP 2: ORDER FOR RPAS OPERATIONS

Deadline (Estimate) 1 week, depending on the complexity of the order

STEP 3: DOCUMENTATION SUBMISSION

Documentation As per Appendices A, E, F, G, and H, as applicable.

Accompanied by appropriate documentation and proof of payment

Compile the documentation and submit it personally to the IACM.

The IACM will review the submitted documentation.

If the documentation is accepted, the operator is invited to proceed to STEP 4 of the order process.

The IACM will provide the result of the submitted documentation, including the recommendations to change and/or update.

As applicable, the IACM will issue an approval letter for the SOP’s, Safety Box, and Maintenance Schedule.

COS only issued after satisfactory demonstration flight during STEP 4.

If all the recommendations in the IACM documentation close satisfactorily, STEP 4 can start.

For CAT C1, the letter of approval for the PAS operations issued, including the limitations and scope of the operation.

Deadline (Estimate) 2 to 6 weeks, depending on the complexity of the order

STEP 4: INSPECTION AND APPROVAL

Category B and C2 Applicability

Documentation Per the IACM RPAS Audit Checklist

IACM and the applicant agree on the date, time, and place for the physical inspection of the operation.

The IACM grants a written waiver to the applicant to allow THE DEMO FLIGHT

The process is within the parameters established by the requested operation (i.e., night flight or controlled air space, etc.).

Inspection Flight for COS and Demonstration Flight for Operational Approvals

Specifics can be combined in the interests of safety and time.

lACM inspection report issued within 2 weeks of demonstration flights.

If satisfactory and corrective actions are closed, the approval letter for operations is issued.

RPAS and Security Certificate per PAS issued and valid for 12 months.

The approval letter and COS will indicate the limitations and approved scope of the Operations of RPAS and COS, respectively.

Term 4 to 8 Weeks after an on-site inspection, depending on order complexity and closure (Estimate) satisfactory of any findings raised during the inspection

Restrictions applicable to Category B, C1, and C2 Operations

Approval of PAS operations for Categories B, C1, or C2 is only issued at registered enterprises in Mozambique presently domiciled in Mozambique. In addition to the documentation relating to registration with the legal entities, the discharge of the finances on fiscal obligations in force in Mozambique must be complete.

While the below flight activities are prohibited, an applicant wishing to perform such flights may request the approval of such operations from the Chairman of the Board of Administration provided that the requirements are followed to a satisfactory level of security.

Prohibited flight activities:

  • Night operations.
  • E-VLOS or B-VLOS operations.
  • Flights in restricted, prohibited, or dangerous areas.
  • Flights under VMC or under IFR conditions.
  • Overflight of the sovereign borders of Mozambique.
  • Flights within a radius of 5 kilometers from any aerodrome in airspace in Class G.
  • Flights in controlled airspace.
  • Flights greater than 400 feet above ground level.
  • Flights at greater lateral distance or within 50 meters of people or structures.
  • Take-off, landing, or flying over a public road.
  • Flying less than 50 meters from any public road.
  • Dropping or releasing any object or substance from an RPAS.
  • Transport of dangerous goods, weapons, or explosives; and
  • Flights over Main National Points, Police Stations, Nuclear Installations, Hospitals, Prisons, Law Courts, Military or Other Governmental Facilities or any other place of Strategic Interest.

Specific Approvals

Operators who intend to conduct RPAS operations outside the scope of the prohibited activities may request the Chairman of the Board of Directors for approval. In addition, the law guides requirements and expectations for flights beyond standard parameters.

RPAS REGISTRATION

All PAS piloted or planned to be piloted for the operations of Categories B, C1 and C2 must be registered with the IACM.

An operator is limited to registering a maximum of 5 RPAS.

Proof of payment of the prescribed fee must accompany the order.

The IACM reserves the right to require a visual inspection of the PAS, including the Manual of use of RPAS and all associated documents or records before processing your registration. In these cases, the applicant will submit the documentation PAS and associated with the IACM at an agreed time and date.

The IACM will issue a certificate of registration to the applicant upon satisfactory registration of any RPAS.

Registration marks must be visible when placed on the RPA and formed of letters of the same height in Arial font, black on a yellow background. The size of the brands of registration must be proportional to the size of the RPA.

Each PAS submitted for registration will have an identification plate attached to it.

When conducting a PAS, the operator must have a certificate of registration available to inspection.

PILOT LICENSING

For Category A operations, a person does not need a pilot’s license.

All pilots will carry a valid PAS pilot license for Category B, C1, and C2 operations.

The IACM may recognize an RPL issued by another ICAO Member State, provided that the theoretical curriculum and practical experience are satisfied.

An RPAS pilot must not be under 18 years of age.

Have at least one valid Class 4 medical certificate.

Hold a valid restricted or general radio telephony license.

An RPAS pilot must have achieved a Level 4 (operational level) or higher of ICAO English language proficiency.

Additional Notes For Foreign Operators

Consideration is only provided for Category A operations (see above):

Restrictions applicable to Category A Transactions

Approval for Category A operations usually is only issued for the Mozambican citizens residing in Mozambique.

In instances where a non-Mozambican citizen or non-resident Mozambican citizen in the country you wish to apply for Category A approval, the following conditions will be applicable:

Approval will only be considered if the person has a valid passport with a visa, as applicable for entry into Mozambique in the case of foreigners.

Approval will be granted for a limited time based on the terms of the entry allowed in passport and/or visa.

RPAS must have been brought into Mozambique legally.

Proof of possession or letter of authorization to use the RPAS of the owner.


Notes for recreational drone pilots flying for fun in Mozambique

See Category A above.

Follow the general rules listed above, but check for updates by visiting the regulator’s links provided.


Notes for operating Commercial Drone Services in Mozambique

See Categories B, C1, and C2 above. Also, options for specific approvals are available.

Follow the general rules listed above, but check for updates by visiting the regulator’s links provided.


Useful published information on flying drones in Mozambique

Here is a sample of what you might expect if you follow the drone laws and fly in Mozambique…

NOTE: Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS), Small UAS, Remote Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), and drone are interchangeable terms unless specified. Model aircraft, toy aircraft, Remote controlled aircraft, and RC aircraft may be covered by the same regulations unless specified.


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